Michael Snyder and his colleagues took billions of measurements of 23 study participants and found that changes in weight resulted in dramatic, systemwide changes throughout the body. The new study, published Feb. 20 in JAMA, homed in on genetics and insulin, seeking to discover if these nuances of biology would encourage an individual’s body to favor a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-fat diet. One thing to note, he continued, is that even though there were trends in omics shifts, each participant exhibited particular changes to his or her own specific omics profile — a nod to the importance of deep, integrative sequencing and data collection when diagnosing and treating patients with precision-health tools. Participants got part of their genome sequenced, allowing scientists to look for specific gene patterns associated with producing proteins that modify carbohydrate or fat metabolism. Genetic differences didn’t appear to matter. “It’s because we’re all very different, and we’re just starting to understand the reasons for this diversity. And with weight gain — moderate though it was — omics profiles shifted too. A dedicated page provides the latest information and developments related to the pandemic. Moving forward, he and his team will continue to analyze the reams of data collected during the yearlong study, and they hope to partner with scientists across Stanford to uncover keys to individual weight loss. “So, when we find a molecule that seems out of whack, we then ask if it falls into any larger pathways in the body.”. Individuals participated in two pre-study activities, the results of which were later tested as predictors of weight loss. “We made sure to tell everybody, regardless of which diet they were on, to go to the farmer’s market, and don’t buy processed convenience food crap. All were randomized into one of two dietary groups: low-carbohydrate or low-fat. Gardner and Desai are members of the Stanford Child Health Research Institute. Each group was instructed to maintain their diet for one year. Past research has shown that a range of factors, including genetics, insulin levels (which helps regulate glucose in the body) and the microbiome, might tip the scales when it comes to weight loss. That’s the question a team led by Stanford’s Christopher Gardner, PhD, recently sought to understand.Their research, which appears in the journal JAMA, focused on whether insulin levels and genes related to metabolism affect how people lose weight — and whether their bodies would favor a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-fat diet. Maybe we shouldn’t be asking what’s the best diet, but what’s the best diet for whom?”. They say that it supports what many have long suspected. The results were published on February 20, 2018, in JAMA. Timing of stress-hormone pulses controls weight gain A circadian code controls the switch that produces fat cells, according to a new study by Stanford researchers. A Comparative Weight Loss Study of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and USDA/LEARN Diets Obesity is the single most significant nutrition-related health issue of the new millennium. By the end of the study, individuals in the two groups had lost, on average, 13 pounds. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial Affiliations 1 Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, California. The researchers pooled information from each person’s transcriptome, a collection of molecules that reveal patterns of DNA expression; proteome, the complete set of proteins an individual actively produces; microbiome; and genome. Gardner and his team are continuing to delve into their databanks, now asking if the microbiome, epigenetics or a different gene expression pattern can clue them in to why there’s such drastic variability between dieting individuals. For example, “genomics” roughly translates to “the study of genes,” and “proteomics” to “the study of proteins.”. People in both groups lost similar amounts of weight over the yearlong study -- 12 pounds for the low-fat group, and 13 pounds for the low-carb. Snyder’s lab has a particular interest in understanding weight change on the microscale among people who are insulin resistant, meaning their glucose-processing ability is compromised, because it’s a common precursor to Type 2 diabetes. Learn about Stanford Bariatric Surgery Clinic, its bariatric surgery or weight loss surgery, the only option that effectively treats severe obesity in people for whom more conservative measures have failed. Weight loss medications are effective to confer additional weight loss after bariatric surgery in the general population, but they have not been evaluated in adults 60 years of age and older. “I feel like we owe it to Americans to be smarter than to just say ‘eat less.’ I still think there is an opportunity to discover some personalization to it — now we just need to work on tying the pieces together.”. What’s key, Gardner said, was emphasizing that these were healthy low-fat and low-carb diets: A soda might be low-fat, but it’s certainly not healthy. Conclusions and Relevance In this 12-month weight loss diet study, there was no significant difference in weight change between a healthy low-fat diet vs a healthy low-carbohydrate diet, and neither genotype pattern nor There was still, however, immense weight loss variability among them; some dropped upward of 60 pounds, while others gained close to 15 or 20. The results of this study were published in JAMA in February, 2018. Jan 17 2018 Michael Snyder and his colleagues took billions of measurements of 23 study participants and found that changes in weight resulted in dramatic, systemwide changes throughout the body. Luis Garcia is part of Stanford Profiles, official site for faculty, postdocs, students and staff information (Expertise, Bio, Research, Publications, and more). I didn’t expect 30 days of overeating to change the whole heart pathway,” he said. Thirteen were insulin-resistant, and 10 were insulin-sensitive, or able to process insulin normally; all had body mass indexes of between 25 and 35 kilograms per square meter. The study included 23 participants. Methods Sixty‐one adults, BMI 28‐40 kg/m 2, were randomized in a 2 × 2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. You can read the abstract here. “On both sides, we heard from people who had lost the most weight that we had helped them change their relationship to food, and that now they were more thoughtful about how they ate,” said Gardner. After the second month, Gardner’s team instructed the groups to make incremental small adjustments as needed, adding back 5-15 grams of fat or carbs gradually, aiming to reach a balance they believed they could maintain for the rest of their lives. Neither option is superior: Cutting either carbs or fats shaves off excess weight in about the same proportion, according to the study. “In the end, we literally made billions of measurements,” said Snyder, who is the Stanford W. Ascherman, MD, FACS, Professor in Genetics. However, results from a recent study suggest that mutant huntingtin in the gut might interfere with important digestive processes, thus contributing to weight loss. FDA Approval and Regulation of Pharmaceuticals, 1983-2018 Global Burden of Cancer, 1990-2017 Global Burden of Skin Diseases, 1990-2017 Global Firearm Mortality, 1990-2016 Health Care Spending in the US and Other High The amount of weight loss during the study was a modest 2% to 5% from baseline. For more information, please visit the Office of Communication & Public Affairs site at http://mednews.stanford.edu. Support Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford and child and maternal health. Also, we advised them to diet in a way that didn’t make them feel hungry or deprived — otherwise it’s hard to maintain the diet in the long run,” said Gardner, who holds the Rehnborg Farquhar Professorship. For weight-loss surgery, minimally invasive procedure yields better outcomes, study finds There are two ways to perform Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, which is by far the most popular weight-loss operation in the United States: one is … A paper describing the work was published online Jan. 17 in Cell Systems. Stanford’s departments of Medicine and of Health Research and Policy also supported the work. The researchers then looked at two major questions: How does weight gain affect omics profiles? Stanford Medicine is leading the biomedical revolution in precision health, defining and developing the next generation of care that is proactive, predictive and precise. It shows that “carbs and fats have different effects o… Perhaps the biggest takeaway from this study, Gardner said, is that the fundamental strategy for losing weight with either a low-fat or a low-carb approach is similar. How do genetics and insulin levels affect weight loss? At the outset of the study, Snyder and his team found notable baseline differences between the insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive groups. Snyder, Rubin and Pitteri are members of the Stanford Cancer Institute. “The goal here was to characterize what happens during weight gain and loss at a level that no one has ever done before,” Snyder said. Over the 12-month period, researchers tracked the progress of participants, logging information about weight, body composition, baseline insulin levels and how many grams of … The researchers integrated a slew of “omics” profiling techniques to gather heaps of data revealing unique details of study participants’ genomic, molecular, metabolic and bacterial composition. Objective To test for differential weight loss response to low‐fat (LF) vs. low‐carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. Steve Fisch. Apr 3 2018 Mary Teruel and her colleagues discovered that rising and falling levels of hormones known as glucocorticoids can affect weight gain. doi: 10.3390/children5090116. Those statistics pleased Gardner, given that average fat consumption for the participants before the study started was around 87 grams a day, and average carbohydrate intake was about 247 grams. What’s more, the study inquired whether insulin levels or a specific genotype pattern could predict an individual’s success on either diet. UK professor of genetic epidemiology at King’s College, London, Tim Spector, says that the study “kills the myth that all calories are equal”. It is more proof (were more needed) that official low-fat, high-carb dietary guidelines need radical revision. Researchers at the Stanford Prevention Research Center are seeking participants for a 12-month weight-loss study aimed at understanding why people on the same low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet have different rates of success. In insulin-sensitive participants, a microbial population called Akkermansia muciniphila, which is known to protect against insulin resistance, shot up. The answer, in both cases, was no. Startup Life A Huge New Harvard Study Into Diets Has Stunningly Controversial Conclusions About Weight Loss At the heart of it, however, … New evidence from a study at the Stanford University School of Medicine might dismay those who have chosen sides in the low-fat versus low-carb diet debate. Author Hanae Armitage Published on January 17, 2018 February 22, 2018 The “pathway level” is equivalent to a system, like the immune or cardiovascular system. The senior authors of the study are Gardner; Abby King, PhD, professor of health research and policy and of medicine; Manisha Desai, PhD, professor of medicine and of biomedical data science; and John Ioannidis, MD, DSc, professor of medicine. After looking for differences at baseline, the researchers changed up the parameters. The human body undergoes dramatic changes during even short periods of weight gain and loss, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Senior authorship is shared by Michael Snyder, PhD, professor of genetics at Stanford; Tracey McLaughlin, MD, professor of medicine at Stanford; and George Weinstock, PhD, professor and director of microbial genomics at the Jackson Laboratory, an independent, nonprofit biomedical research institution. Go for whole foods, whether that is a wheatberry salad or grass-fed beef. Hanae Armitage is a science writer in the Office of Communications. The study was designed to determine if either insulin secretion or genotype pattern (low-fat genotype pattern vs .low-carb genotype pattern) were significant effect modifiers of 12-month weight loss for the two diet arms (e.g., 2X2 Stanford Medicine is closely monitoring the outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Official Title Weight Loss Diet Study: Low Carbohydrate vs. Low Fat and Insulin Resistance Status The team found that there was no significant difference in weight loss between the two groups one year later. At the end of the 12 months, those on a low-fat diet reported a daily average fat intake of 57 grams; those on low-carb ingested about 132 grams of carbohydrates per day. “But this all fits with how we think of the human body — it’s a whole system, not just a few isolated components, so there are systemwide changes when people gain weight.”. Janey S.A. Pratt, MD is part of Stanford Profiles, official site for faculty, postdocs, students and staff information (Expertise, Bio, Research, Publications, and more). Stanford Medicine integrates research, medical education and health care at its three institutions - Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Health Care (formerly Stanford Hospital & Clinics), and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford. Endpoints include weight loss, change in insulin resistance, blood pressure, lipid and lipoproteins, markers of endothelial function, daylong insulin and glucose concentrations: these will be compared, in each of the parallel studies And, what happens once that weight is lost? Those subjects who followed the Atkins diet did have more weight loss than the other three groups. About half were men and half were women. Study finds even a modest weight gain causes the body to fluctuate on the molecular level, but most changes revert back when weight is lost. The site facilitates research and collaboration in academic endeavors. But, contrary to the study hypotheses, Gardner found no associations between the genotype pattern or baseline insulin levels and a propensity to succeed on either diet. “I think it will be a critical part of managing human health in the future.”. Support teaching, research, and patient care. (A BMI of 25 is on the high-end of normal; a BMI of more than 40 roughly equates to morbid obesity). (By the end of that year, about 20 percent of participants had dropped out of the study, due to outside circumstances, Gardner noted.). The study’s other Stanford co-authors are postdoctoral scholars John Trepanowski, PhD, and Michelle Hauser MD; research fellow Liana Del Gobbo; and senior biostatistician, Joseph Rigdon, PhD. 803 Attended study orientation and informed of study details 254 Excluded 69 Did not meet eligibility criteria 137 No longer interested 29 Discontinued communication 19 Other 60 Body mass index >40 or <28a 9 Blood glucoseb Snyder is a member of the Stanford Cardiovascular Institute. Among the 609 participants in the study, who collectively lost >6,500 pounds after one year, there was no average difference in weight loss between the two diet groups (Healthy Low Fat vs. New research from Stanford shows that fitness monitors and other wearable biosensors can tell when an individual’s heart rate, skin temperature and other measures are abnormal, suggesting possible illness. LCHF diets really are superior to conventional low-fat, high-carb diets for weight loss. It can be a frustrating experience. Inflammation markers went up in both the insulin-resistant and healthy groups. Bacterial populations morphed, immune responses and inflammation flared, and molecular pathways associated with heart disease activated. For the complete results published in the JAMA paper click here. “We’ve all heard stories of a friend who went on one diet — it worked great — and then another friend tried the same diet, and it didn’t work at all,” said Christopher Gardner, PhD, professor of medicine and the lead author of the study. Gardner is a member of Stanford ChEM-H. Ioannidis is a member of Stanford Bio-X. Eat less sugar, less refined flour and as many vegetables as possible. But Snyder said not to sweat the holiday heft just yet; there’s good news too: Once the participants had dropped the excess weight, their microbes, molecules and gene-expression levels bounced back to their normal levels, for the most part. Gardner, Desai and Ioannidis are members of the Stanford Cancer Institute. Snyder and Rubin are members of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute. For more information, please visit the Office of Communication & Public Affairs site at http://mednews.stanford.edu. Case study examples weight loss for essay importance conservation environment Actor goal achievement and their place as a verb; use it to be an uncomplicated process for the attention of different predictors might be related within the essay question. But that’s not the end of the story. Inflammation is a known issue in people with diabetes, and early omics profiling like this, Snyder said, could help flag inflammation-associated molecules in people who are not diabetic but at risk for the disease. Bariatric Surgery & Medical Weight Loss in Palo Alto 900 Blake Wilbur Drive Garden Level 900 Blake Wilbur Drive Garden Level Palo Alto CA, 94304 Phone: 650-736-5800 Getting Here » Several "medical experts" have designed and promoted weight loss diets that dramatically differ from one another, and from the USDA Dietary Guidelines. Email her at, Stanford Health Care (formerly Stanford Hospital & Clinics), Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, Participants sought for weight-loss study to help understand why one diet doesn't fit all. Email her at, Stanford Health Care (formerly Stanford Hospital & Clinics), Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, Wearable sensors can tell when you are getting sick, Gene could help explain insulin resistance. Stanford scientists have found links between changes in a person’s weight and shifts in their microbiome, immune system and cardiovascular system. Stanford Medicine is closely monitoring the outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19). We have gobs of data that we can use in secondary, exploratory studies,” he said. “Big data will be critical to the future of medicine, and things like these integrative omics profiles will offer an understanding of how the human body responds, in a very personal way, to different challenges,” Snyder said. “This study closes the door on some questions — but it opens the door to others. As people pack on pounds or shed excess weight, they exhibit notable changes in their microbiome, cardiovascular system, immune system and levels of gene expression, the study found. Learn how we are healing patients through science & compassion, Stanford team stimulates neurons to induce particular perceptions in mice's minds, Students from far and near begin medical studies at Stanford. In the study, van der Burg and colleagues looked at R6 /2 mice, which are mouse models of HD described in greater detail here . Timing of stress-hormone pulses controls weight gain Date: April 4, 2018 Source: Stanford Medicine Summary: New research provides the first molecular understanding of why people gain weight … The participants received a high-calorie diet, and after 30 days they had, on average, tacked on 6 pounds. Anyone who has ever been on a diet knows that the standard prescription for weight loss is to reduce the amount of calories you consume. “That was quite surprising. Stanford researchers have found that, contrary to previous studies, insulin levels and a specific genotype pattern don’t predict weight-loss success. But perhaps the most striking change was a shift in gene expression associated with increased risk for a type of heart failure called dilated cardiomyopathy, in which the heart cannot pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body, Snyder said. The lead authors are Stanford postdoctoral scholars Wenyu Zhou, PhD, and Hannes Röst, PhD; staff scientist Kévin Contrepois, PhD; and former postdoctoral scholar Brian Piening, PhD. 2018 Aug 29;5(9). Stanford researchers are exploring that question and are seeking participants for a year-long weight-loss study that aims to understand why people may respond differently to the same diet. Experts have hailed the Harvard study as ground-breaking and “profound”. Snyder and McLaughlin are members of the Stanford Child Health Research Institute. 1. We performed a retrospective study Stanford researchers have found that, contrary to previous studies, insulin levels and a specific genotype pattern don’t predict weight-loss success. Support Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford and child and maternal health. Medical Weight Loss Program Many people struggle to lose weight and keep it off. Among disparities in protein production and microbial populations, Snyder spotted one big discrepancy: Molecular markers for inflammation were only found in the bloodstreams of insulin-resistant participants. Then, participants took a baseline insulin test, in which they drank a shot of glucose (think corn syrup) on an empty stomach, and researchers measured their bodies’ insulin outputs. “We also really wanted to learn how prediabetic folks might differ in terms of their personal omics profiles and their molecular responses to weight fluctuation.”. But a new study, published Tuesday in … “I’m hoping that we can come up with signatures of sorts,” he said. Learn how we are healing patients through science & compassion, Stanford team stimulates neurons to induce particular perceptions in mice's minds, Students from far and near begin medical studies at Stanford. Stanford’s departments of Genetics, of Radiology, of Biomedical Data Science and of Medicine also supported the work. Weight Loss Medications in Young Adults after Bariatric Surgery for Weight Regain or Inadequate Weight Loss: A Multi-Center Study. pii: E116. Stanford Medicine integrates research, medical education and health care at its three institutions - Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Health Care (formerly Stanford Hospital & Clinics), and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford. New evidence from a study at the Stanford University School of Medicine might dismay those who have chosen sides in … The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grants 1R01DK091831, T32HL007034 and 1K12GM088033), the Nutrition Science Initiative and Stanford’s Clinical and Translational Science Award (grant UL1TR001085). Stanford scientists have found links between changes in a person’s weight and shifts in their microbiome, immune system and cardiovascular system. Over the 12-month period, researchers tracked the progress of participants, logging information about weight, body composition, baseline insulin levels and how many grams of fat or carbohydrate they consumed daily. Lard may be low-carb, but an avocado would be healthier. The work is an example of Stanford Medicine’s focus on precision health, the goal of which is to anticipate and prevent disease in the healthy and precisely diagnose and treat disease in the ill. To that end, the study compared differences in baseline omics of insulin-resistant participants with those of healthy individuals. Gardner and Ioannidis are members of the Stanford Cardiovascular Institute. Support teaching, research, and patient care. Studies show that even non-rigorous exercise like walking and using stairs, has a positive effect. Craig Pickering of DNAFit said that genes besides the three in the Stanford study can contribute to weight loss as well as fat loss and gain, as a small 2007 study found, and … The average loss was about 12 pounds in the low-fat diet “Omics” is equivalent to tacking on “the study of” to the names of areas of biological inquiry. Hanae Armitage is a science writer in the Office of Communications. There’s not enough evidence to draw concrete clinical conclusions, “but it is an indication that some of these effects could be longer-lasting,” Snyder said. “In these analyses, we’re looking at individual molecules that are changing, and then we’re expanding them to the pathway level,” Snyder said. The purpose of this study is to determine whether weight loss success can be increased if one follows the dietary approach appropriately matched to their insulin resistance status. In his quest to find out if individual biological factors dictate weight loss, Gardner recruited 609 participants between the ages of 18 and 50. Shutting off a gene implicated in insulin resistance leads to damaged mitochondria and decreased exercise capacity in mice. The study’s other Stanford co-authors are postdoctoral scholars Gucci Jijuan Gu, PhD, Tejaswini Mishra, PhD, Imon Banerjee, PhD, Colleen Craig, PhD, Reza Sailani, PhD, Liang Liang, PhD, and Charles Abbott, PhD; research assistant Christine Yeh, MSc; research study coordinator Elizabeth Colbert; graduate researcher Cynthia Chen; former graduate student Kimberly Kukurba; research dietician Dalia Perelman, MS; software developer Denis Salins; genetic counselor Shannon Rego, MS; life science research professional Jessica Wheeler, MS; Daniel Rubin, MD, associate professor of biomedical data science, of radiology and of medicine; and Sharon Pitteri, PhD, assistant professor of radiology. A study conducted by the National Weight Control Registry found people who lost weight and continued bi-monthly support group meetings for one year maintained their full weight loss. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grants 1U54DE02378901, 1T32HL098049 and 1F32DK100072), the American Diabetes Association, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the European Molecular Biology Organization, the Swedish Research Council and gifts from anonymous donors. When study participants lost the weight, most of the rest of the body’s systems recalibrated back to their original states, the study found. “We wanted them to choose a low-fat or low-carb diet plan that they could potentially follow forever, rather than a diet that they’d drop when the study ended.”. Snyder and his colleagues found that even with modest weight gain — about 6 pounds — the human body changed in dramatic fashion at the molecular level. We’re here to help you. In the initial eight weeks of the study, participants were told to limit their daily carbohydrate or fat intake to just 20 grams, which is about what can be found in a 1½ slices of whole wheat bread or in a generous handful of nuts, respectively. Study participants who didn't regained almost half of the weight. A dedicated page provides the latest information and developments related to the pandemic. Children (Basel). The site facilitates research and collaboration in academic Researchers at the Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Yale University, the Royal Institute of Technology, the Chalmers Institute of Technology, the University of Gothenburg and Uppsala University also contributed to this work. However, a small subset of weight-gain-associated shifts in protein and molecule production did persist, even after participants had shed the extra pounds, the study found. 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