The health benefits and risks of coffee have long been debated, with various outcomes reported (3). In fact, 99% of ingested caffeine is absorbed and distributed to all tissues and organs. Coffee consumption is a model for addictive behavior. Remember, a moderate amount of caffeine is OK for adults who are healthy. (R), Higher levels of caffeine intake of any kind may raise serum cholesterol and lead to heart health problems. Holiday Sale: Use coupon code HOLIDAY at checkout for $15 off DNA Diet Test Kits. (R). The “most widely consumed drug in Western society,” caffeine is absorbed quickly into our system. Researchers found eight such variants, two of which had already been linked to coffee consumption. Carriers of the gene mutation who had Parkinson's also had lower consumption of caffeine in their diet. With an average of 100 milligrams of caffeine in each cup, it wakes up your brain and boosts your energy. A better understanding of the factors influencing caffeine intake could help to identify critical factors affecting quality of life and/or susceptibility to disease 16,17 . Genetics studies on twins have suggested that caffeine consumption has a highly heritable component - estimates suggest 30-50% of the variation in coffee consumption in a group of people can be explained by genetics. How can I reduce the amount of coffee I drink? It’s been working great. You can track your daily caffeine intake in a food journal, which I do. For many people, there is nothing better than rolling out of bed and enjoying a fresh, hot cup of joe. One is on chromosome 7 near the AHR gene, and the other is on chromosome 15 near the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes. In stratified analysis, a statistical significance within the caffeinated group was observed for the change in systolic BP in the stratum of CYP1A2 polymorphism with daily caffeine consumption ≤90 mg/day: change in systolic BP in the CYP1A2 rs762551 CC group (mean ± SD = 11.8 ± 5.9) was higher than that in the AA/CA group (4.1 ± 5.5). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31046077. The amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee can vary greatly depending on the origin or the coffee and it mixture and the elaboration method. For more on that, see: VDR genotypes, caffeine and bone density. Shortly after drinking a cup of coffee or tea, the caffeine is distributed throughout the body (nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, etc. You can find all the references for this post organized at the bottom of this piece. We already know that pregnant women shouldn’t drink caffeine, but fertile women who drink more than 500 mg of caffeine per day may have a more difficult time getting pregnant due to increased oxidative stress. The association between FTO variants and coffee consumption shown in the study is supported by a recent Mendelian randomization study which reported that a BMI-increasing allele in a gene with FTO was associated with higher coffee consumption. Copyright © 2020 Awaken, Inc. All rights reserved. To date, caffeine is regarded as the most frequently consumed stimulant in the world due to increasing consumption of … Caffeine withdrawal, and its symptoms, are real, and include headache, fatigue, irritability, and more. High blood pressure may be due to mineral imbalance, Hops Supplements and the Science of Sleep. Additionally, we showed that the −866 G/A UCP2 gene variation influences the relationship between coffee intake and adiposity. Caffeinated drinks like coffee may help to protect people from Parkinson’s disease caused by mutations in the LRRK2 gene, much as research suggests it does in preventing sporadic, or non-familial, forms of this disease, a study reported. Gene: CYPIA2 CYPIA2 The CYPI A2 qene contains instructions for an that breaks down many substances, including caffeine. Introduction. (R) Energy drinks, too, have led to hundreds of thousands of emergency room visits, with symptoms including feeling shaky or jittery, insomnia, palpitations, GI upset, headache, chest pain, and even seizures. However, it has been reported that coffee or tea consumption can reduce the risk of several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cognitive decline and specific cancers. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21432699, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182026, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3301987, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3805807/, Pass the salt? Caffeine-found in tea, coffee, mate, cola beverages, cocoa, and chocolate products-is an integral part of the diet of many people. Sure, Shelly! Certain genotypes in the CYP1A2 gene are associated with slower caffeine metabolism, and therefore are more prone to that "jittery" feeling after a cup of coffee or even tea. In terms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although randomized controlled trials demonstrate that intake of caffeine, the most prominent bioactive compound of coffee, leads to acute i… (R) Just make sure you are measuring an actual cup. Truth be told, I drink about 3-5 cups (how “cup” is actually defined on a coffeemaker, not physical mugs) of coffee a day. We all know that caffeine before bed is a no-no, but even caffeine ingested 6 hours before sleep — those afternoon coffee pick-me-ups, for example — have been found to have significant effects on sleep, presumably because caffeine blocks adenosine receptors. The gene is thought to regulate the production of proteins that metabolize caffeine in the body, the study authors report. Just one teaspoon of powdered caffeine is equivalent to about 28 cups of coffee. Variants in these genes may affect how quickly the body breaks down and clears away caffeine. Coffee, tea, grapefruit juice, red wine, liquor and beer were classified as bitter beverages, while non-grapefruit juices and artificially and sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) were classified as sweet beverages. Significant associations of fifteen independent SNPs spanning 10 loci were replicated from stage 1 to 2 for coffee consumption. Instant or soluble coffee generally has less caffeine than roasted or ground coffee. This mineral is responsible for more than 300 enzymatic reactions in our bodies, making it essential for physiological functions like heart rhythm, nerve function, and muscle relaxation. How about you? Another is the AHR gene, which controls when and how the CYP1A2 gene is switched on and off (2). Since beginning the research on this blog post, I’m down to just 2 cups of coffee a day. Don’t just go from 9 cups a day to none. There are plenty of health benefits associated with drinking caffeine, or at least the beverages you may be drinking that contain caffeine. (R). Two variants of the gene exist: the CPA1A2*1A allele results in fast caffeine metabolism, while the CPA1A2*1F allele results in slower caffeine metabolism. Compared to an average cup of coffee containing 85 mg of caffeine, mate has 78 mg — topping off the mate pot, though, may lead to consuming increased amounts of caffeine pretty quickly. Wondering what in the world is a telomere? You can login to your Genomelink dashboard to see this new genetic trait. (R). 1 2, However, there is evidence that it’s not the caffeine that drives these health benefits, but the antioxidants in the tea and coffee. Amber Krosel is a Gene Food experience writer and official taste tester. (R). Generally, the amount of caffeine consumption is less than 300 mg/day, which is more or less: 3-4 cups of roasted and ground coffee; 5 cups of instant coffee; 5 cups of tea. By you using this site, you agree the information contained here is for informational purposes only. These variants are located near two genes: CYP1A2 and AHR. That can be anywhere from 200 to 400 mg. Caffeine also lurks in other things we eat, like chocolate, and in some over-the-counter medications. This enzyme is a member Of a large family Of enzymes called cytochrome P450. In addition to caffeine, mate contains theobromine, which is predominantly found in cocoa. All citations used have been vetted by our research team headed by Dr. Aaron Gardner. Medically reviewed by Dr. Daniel Deakter, MD. If you’ve gotten your genetics tested, you can see which genes are targeted, as well, plus a few links to studies about magnesium. Caffeine in powder or liquid form can provide toxic levels of caffeine, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cautioned. 1. Similarly, in certain VDR genotypes, caffeine consumption in women was linked to a greater risk for osteoporosis. What is the lethal dose of caffeine in humans? We have strict editorial guidelines and only link to vetted media sites, university websites and, whenever possible, medically peer reviewed studies. The study identified two genes associated with the amount of caffeine people consume. Upload raw DNA data to learn more about yourself and genomics science. (R). 2, Caffeine increases levels of cortisol, the stress hormone. One thing I’ve found that has been working for me is taking a magnesium supplement with my breakfast. Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide (1), with an estimated 3 billion cups drunk daily (2). Whether genetic variants related to taste perception are associated with beverage consumption remains to be determined. As mentioned above, yerba mate might be a great alternative for those looking for a caffeine boost but concerned about their blood pressure. In terms of the joint effects of GRIN2A_rs4998386 with caffeine intake as well as the gene-caffeine interaction, they both were also strongly pronounced in our cohort (CC-light caffeine vs. TC-heavy caffeine: OR = 0.38, p = 0.002 and gene-caffeine interaction: OR = 0.998, P<0.001, respectively). It can increase the fetus's heart rate and, in some cases, may even lead to a miscarriage. Scientists have identified genetic variants that influence how your body handles caffeine. One is the CYP1A2 gene that encodes for a liver enzyme critical for the metabolism of caffeine. If you’re a habitual coffee drinker consuming well over the 400-mg recommended limit, you’ll want to gradually reduce your caffeine intake. Generally, the amount of caffeine consumption is … 1 So, bottom line, unlike curcumin, which isn’t readily absorbed, caffeine packs a punch. ). Data on coffee consumption and other dietary components were collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire along with other caffeine-containing beverages such as tea, chocolate, and other beverages. Because of our processed-food diets today, many people are magnesium-deficient and they don’t know it. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic polymorphisms have been linked to variation in response to … If you are caffeine-sensitive or trying to cut back, many types of tea will perk you up — though one of the strongest cups of tea can have half the caffeine as a mega-strong 8-ounce cup of coffee from Starbucks, which clocks in at 180 mg, one of the most highly caffeinated cups out there. Overall, strengths and directions of SNP-phenotype associations were similar across total bitter beverages, bitter non-alcoholic beverages and coffee, based on joint meta-analysis. Your caffeine levels peak about 1-hour after consumption and then start to decrease gradually. demographic, social, occupational, cultural and others) may have masked genetic effects but replication of results from a UK population to a US populationenhances generalizability and reduces false positive results. Some coffee mugs fit more than 8 ounces, and grabbing a venti iced coffee from a Starbucks drive-thru is going to set you pretty far back on your caffeine goals for the day. A recent Mendelian randomization analysis reported that bitter perception was causally associated with coffee, tea and alcohol consumption.In this study, researchers conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of  self-reported consumption of bitter- and sweet-tasting beverages. Genetics determines how quickly your body processes and eliminates the caffeine and whether it is likely to make you jittery or anxious. Significant associations of fifteen independent SNPs spanning 10 loci were replicated from stage 1 to 2 for coffee consumption. Let’s take a look at a few popular drinks and how their caffeine count breaks down in milligrams, in addition to the health benefits of caffeine, potential side effects and risks, and how to lower your caffeine intake. Coffee consumption may decrease the risk of developing Parkinson's, even for people with a gene mutation linked to the disease, reports a new study. Try also drinking a big glass of water in the morning before your first cup of coffee. Caffeine consumption and metabolism are influenced by genetic markers near the CYPI A2 and AHR genes. Such high levels of caffeine can cause serious health problems and possibly death. At Gene Food, we are committed to providing our readers accurate, evidence based content. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) says “for pregnant women with high daily caffeine intake (more than 300 mg per day), lowering daily caffeine intake during pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss and low birth weight neonates.” Given the widespread consumption of various types of beverages and their substantial health implications, understanding environmental and genetic factors contributing to beverage choice and consumption levels have important nutritional and broader public health implications. In addition to caffeine, coffee contains caffeic and cholrogenic acid, both of which are potent antioxidants. Copyright © 2021 Gene Food. The speed of this decline depends on your CYP1A2 gene, which controls an enzyme (also called CYP1A2) that is in charge of breaking down any caffeine that enters the body. For example, this study found that telomere length was actually decreased in those who regularly consumed caffeine, but increased in those who consumed coffee. Both of the genes are known to be involved in the breakdown of caffeine in the liver. For a little more technical breakdown of telomere genetics, check out the TERT gene page. For example, soda is basically liquid sugar, and even diet soda containing aspartame has been linked to adverse side effects (including being potentially carcinogenic). The lethal dose of caffeine is 2 grams of caffeine per day, that is, 80-100 cups of coffee a day. Genetic and phenotypic data from over 370,000 adults of European ancestry was collected first from the UK biobank (stage 1), and then three additional US-based cohorts (stage 2). Although rs9937053 in FTO gene, rs8056750 in HYDIN gene, and rs116094457 in RNF166 gene were not among those replicated, the joint analysis (stage 1 + stage 2) showed at least nominally significant relationships with coffee consumption. Cocoa can be an excellent source of antioxidants, and theobromine actually reduces blood pressure, whereas caffeine increases it. Or maybe it’s time to switch up your beverage of choice. Point is that not all caffeine sources are created equal. Enjoy! That’s the job of your metabolism, and when it comes to caffeine, just two genes handle most of the work. She loves beer, her boyfriend and her adopted pup. (R). “How this gene relates to both caffeine metabolism and caffeine-seeking behavior is unclear but worthy of further study, given its link to several health outcomes,” Cornelis said. Cortisol regulates energy balance, and those who consistently drink caffeine have reduced response to the good effect of cortisol. Start slow, and see if you can swap out one cup of coffee for tea, or begin mixing in some decaf. Do you ever worry about your caffeine consumption? Genetics of Caffeine Consumption Several genes are involved in eliciting the different responses to caffeine among individuals. What you’re ingesting with the caffeine matters greatly. Although rs9937053 in FTO gene, rs8056750 in HYDIN gene, and rs116094457 in RNF166 gene were not among those replicated, the joint analysis (stage 1 + stage 2) showed at least nominally significant relationships with coffee consumption. It has been reported that taste perception and preferences are heritable and play a role in beverage choice and consumption. Fast metabolizers tend to drink more caffeine than slow metabolizers. Aaron did an excellent write up a few months back titled: Can telomeres predict lifespan? 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